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Updated: Nov 20, 2023

The first reading of Parshas Vayeishev, with integrated commentary of Rashi.

by Rabbi Boruch Merkur

In the land of Canaan, under the vast, sun-drenched skies, Jacob, the son of Isaac, made a momentous decision. His journey was not just a mere relocation; it was a departure that echoed through the streets and alleys of Beer Sheba, leaving an indelible mark on its essence. The town, which once buzzed with the vibrancy of Jacob's presence, now felt a profound sense of loss. His righteousness had been its pride, his wisdom its ornament, and his kindness its splendor. With his leaving, Beer Sheba seemed to lose a part of its soul.

This was not a journey taken lightly. Jacob's departure was rooted in a deeper family narrative, one intertwined with the choices of his brother, Esau. Esau's marriage to the daughters of Canaan had been a source of distress for their father, Isaac. Observing this, Esau sought to remedy his past actions by marrying into Ishmael's lineage, a decision that temporarily shifted the narrative away from Jacob. But now, as the script of Esau's life paused, the focus returned to Jacob, the chosen son, who was setting off on a path that would shape the destiny of a nation.

As Jacob stepped out of Beer Sheba, his destination was clear: Haran. This was not a random choice but a purposeful journey toward a specific goal. Haran was more than a geographic location; it was a new chapter in Jacob's life, a place where his destiny would unfold in ways he could not yet fathom.

The roads he traveled were dusty and long, the journey arduous. Yet, Jacob's resolve was unshaken. Each step he took was a step away from his past and a stride toward his future. The land behind him was losing a beacon of righteousness, and the land ahead was yet to realize the treasure it was about to receive.

In this journey, Jacob is traveler as well as a symbol of change, a testament to the impact one righteous soul can have on the places they grace with their presence.


Jacob's journey, now turning into a divine encounter, brought him to a special place as night fell. This place, unnamed yet significant, was Mount Moriah, a site of profound spiritual importance. It was here, as the sun hurriedly set, not in its usual course but rather abruptly, that Jacob decided to rest for the night. This sudden sunset was more than a natural phenomenon; it was a celestial sign, beckoning him to pause in this sacred space.

In preparation for his night's rest, Jacob took stones from this place and arranged them around his head, forming a protective barrier against the wild beasts of the night. These stones, inanimate yet seemingly aware of the righteousness of the man who lay among them, began a silent dispute. Each stone yearned to be the one upon which this virtuous man would rest his head. Miraculously, the stones merged into one, a testament to the unity and harmony that Jacob's presence inspired, even in the most ordinary of objects.

This convergence of stones was symbolic of the divine intervention in Jacob's life, a physical manifestation of the spiritual journey he was undertaking. It was in this place, chosen by divine design, that Jacob lay down to rest. But this rest was unique; it was a stark contrast to the past fourteen years he had spent in the house of Eber, where he had dedicated his nights to the study of Torah, forsaking physical rest for spiritual growth.

Jacob's rest at Mount Moriah was not merely a physical necessity but a spiritual moment, a pause in his journey to connect with a higher purpose. This moment at Mount Moriah stands as a reminder of the sacredness of place and time in our spiritual journeys. It emphasizes that sometimes, divine intervention alters our course, leading us to moments of reflection, protection, and connection with a greater reality.


In the stillness of the night, as Jacob lay with his head resting upon the merged stones, a vision unfolded before him in his dream. He saw a ladder, its base firmly set upon the earth and its top reaching into the heavens. This was no ordinary ladder, but a bridge between the earthly and the divine, a connection between the tangible world and the spiritual realm.

Upon this ladder, angels were in motion, ascending and descending in a rhythmic dance of celestial duty. These were not just any angels; they were the guardians of the Holy Land, the messengers of God specifically appointed to accompany Jacob within its borders. But as Jacob journeyed beyond this sacred land, these angels could venture no further. They ascended back to the heavens, their mission complete.

As these angels ascended, a new group of divine messengers descended. These were the angels assigned to accompany Jacob outside the Holy Land. This change of guard was not just a mere transition of responsibilities; it symbolized a significant shift in Jacob's journey. He was now stepping into a realm beyond the familiar, guided and protected by a different set of heavenly guardians.

This dream was more than just a nocturnal vision; it was a profound revelation. It symbolized the continuous presence and guidance of the divine in Jacob's journey, whether within the borders of the Holy Land or beyond. The ladder bridging earth and heaven was a symbol of the constant communication and connection between Jacob and the divine, a reminder that he was never alone in his journey.

The ascending and descending angels were a testament to the meticulous care and attention that the divine world bestowed upon Jacob. Each step of his journey was watched over, each phase of his life journey marked by a specific divine presence and guidance.

As Jacob lay there, witnessing this extraordinary vision, he was reminded of the ever-present connection between the human and the divine, the tangible and the spiritual, the earthly journey and the heavenly guidance. This dream was not just a moment of rest in his journey; it was a profound spiritual awakening, a glimpse into the divine plan and the assurance of unwavering heavenly support as he ventured into the unknown.


In his dream, as Jacob lay with his head on the stone, a profound moment of divine encounter occurred. Behold, the Lord Himself stood above him, a guardian presence over Jacob in this vulnerable state of slumber. This was not merely a dream; it was a divine revelation, a sacred moment of connection between the earthly and the heavenly.

The Lord spoke to Jacob, identifying Himself as the God of Abraham, his grandfather, and the God of Isaac, his father. This was significant, as it is rare for the Divine to associate His name with the living. However, in Isaac's case, it was different. Isaac, whose eyes had dimmed and who was confined within his home, had ceased to contend with worldly matters and the evil inclination, akin to one who had passed from this life. Thus, God could associate His name with Isaac, just as He did with Abraham after his death.

In this divine conversation, God made a promise to Jacob. The very land upon which he lay sleeping, the Holy Land of Israel, would be given to him and his descendants. This promise was not just about land ownership; it was a covenant, a binding agreement that spanned generations. To emphasize this promise, God performed a miraculous sign: He folded the entire Land of Israel beneath Jacob, symbolizing that it would be easily conquered and settled by his descendants. This act served as a tangible assurance of God's promise, making the vast land as accessible and conquerable as the small area occupied by Jacob's sleeping form.

This encounter was transformative for Jacob. It was an assurance of divine protection, a reaffirmation of the covenant with his forefathers, and a clear vision of the future for his descendants. The Lord's words were not just a promise but a declaration of an unbreakable bond between Jacob, his offspring, and the Land of Israel.


In his divine dream, Jacob received a promise of extraordinary magnitude from the Lord. The promise extended far beyond the immediate context, painting a vision of a future teeming with abundance and influence. "Your seed shall be as the dust of the earth," the Lord declared, indicating that Jacob's descendants would be countless, spreading far and wide across the earth, uncontainable and ubiquitous.

The Lord's promise continued, foretelling that Jacob's influence and that of his descendants would extend in all directions: westward, eastward, northward, and southward. This was not merely a geographical expansion but a symbol of the pervasive and far-reaching impact Jacob's lineage would have on the world. The term "you shall gain strength" (Heb. וּפָרַצ ְתָּ) mirrored the idea of breaking through barriers, expanding beyond the expected or established limits, much like the Israelites did in Egypt, as they grew stronger despite oppression.

Most significantly, through Jacob and his descendants, all the families of the earth would be blessed. This was a profound aspect of the covenant between God and Abraham, now reiterated and reinforced with Jacob. This promise signified that the impact of Jacob's lineage would be universally beneficial, a source of blessing and positive transformation for all peoples of the earth.

This divine assurance to Jacob was not just about the multiplication of his offspring or territorial expansion. It was about the spiritual and moral influence his descendants would wield. The blessings promised to Jacob were to ripple through time, affecting not only his immediate progeny but generations to come, extending blessings to the entirety of humanity.

In this moment, Jacob's personal journey transcended into a universal vision, intertwining his destiny with the destiny of the world. The covenant, thus, established Jacob not just as a patriarch of a nation, but as a foundational figure in the unfolding story of human history and divine interaction.


In the stillness of the night, as Jacob lay in the sacred space between waking and dreaming, the Lord's presence enveloped him. The divine assurance "And behold, I am with you" was not merely comforting words but a profound promise, addressing Jacob's fears as he fled from Esau and later, as he would encounter Laban.

This assurance was more than a mere guarantee of physical safety; it was a declaration of ongoing divine companionship and protection on every path Jacob would tread. The Lord's promise extended further, assuring Jacob of his eventual return to this very land, a reaffirmation of the covenantal bond between them.

The phrase "until I have done" (Heb. עַד אֲשֶׁר אִם עָשִׂיתִי) emphasized the certainty of God's promise. It was a guarantee that the Lord would not forsake Jacob until every word spoken to him was fulfilled. This commitment by God was a testament to the unwavering divine purpose at work in Jacob's life and in the legacy that would follow through his lineage.

Furthermore, the Lord's message to Jacob clarified a crucial aspect of the Abrahamic covenant. The blessings promised to Abraham were now explicitly directed at Jacob, setting him apart from Esau. The Lord's use of the term "concerning you" (Heb. לָךְ) was deliberate, underscoring that the covenantal blessings and responsibilities would flow through Jacob, not Esau. This distinction was crucial, shaping the narrative of the chosen people and reinforcing Jacob's role as a key patriarch in this divine saga.

This divine encounter at this place was a turning point for Jacob, a moment where the promises of the past were reiterated with clarity and precision for the future. The Lord's words were a blend of comfort, clarification, and commitment, enveloping Jacob in a sense of divine purpose and protection as he journeyed into the unknown.


As Jacob awoke from his sleep, his heart was heavy with the realization of the sanctity of the place where he had rested. His words, "Indeed, the Lord is in this place, and I did not know [it]," were not just an expression of surprise but a profound acknowledgment of the divine presence he had unknowingly encountered.

Jacob's realization was one of awe and reverence. He understood that the place where he had slept, though appearing ordinary to the unsuspecting eye, was indeed a holy ground, a place where the veil between the earthly and the divine was thin. Had he known the sacredness of this place, he would not have dared to sleep there. This was a place where heaven touched earth, where God chose to reveal Himself and His promises.

This moment of awakening for Jacob was symbolic of a deeper spiritual awakening. He became acutely aware of the divine presence in his life, understanding that God was not confined to a specific location or territory but was with him wherever he went. This realization transformed Jacob's perception of his journey, his challenges, and his destiny. It was an epiphany that God's presence and promises were not limited to the holy ground upon which he slept, but extended far beyond, accompanying him on every step of his path.

Jacob's awakening from sleep thus became an awakening to a higher truth, a recognition of the continuous and pervasive presence of the divine in his life. This understanding would guide him through his trials and travels, fortifying his faith and commitment to the path laid out for him.


Upon awakening from his dream, Jacob was overcome with a deep sense of reverence and fear. He exclaimed, "How awesome is this place! This is none other than the house of God, and this is the gate of heaven." This realization marked a profound recognition of the sacredness of the ground upon which he had slept, and the vision he had witnessed.

Rabbi Eleazar, quoting Rabbi Jose ben Zimra, provided a deeper insight into the significance of this place. The ladder Jacob saw in his dream was not merely symbolic but also geographical. It was positioned in Beer-sheba, with its middle reaching opposite the Temple in Jerusalem. This positioning linked Beer-sheba in the south, Beth-el in the north, and Jerusalem in the center, signifying that Jacob's location was at the spiritual heart of the land.

The revelation that this place was the "house of God" and the "gate of heaven" suggested that it was a site of direct communication with the divine. It was a place where prayers would ascend to heaven, a spiritual portal. The midrashic interpretation of this vision suggested that the Heavenly Temple was aligned directly above the earthly Temple, reinforcing the idea of this location as a bridge between the earthly and the divine.

Jacob's recognition of the sanctity of this place was profound. He understood that he was at the very center of divine presence on earth, a place where heaven and earth converged. His declaration of awe was not just an expression of fear but also of deep spiritual connection and understanding. He had unknowingly rested in a place that was not only geographically central but also spiritually pivotal, a sacred space where the divine presence was intensely felt and where prayers could directly ascend to heaven.


As dawn broke, casting its first light upon the earth, Jacob, still enveloped in the awe of his nocturnal encounter with the divine, arose. He approached the stone that had served as his pillow in the night, a humble object that had borne witness to his profound vision. With a sense of reverence, he lifted this stone and set it upright, transforming it into a monument—a tangible symbol of the sacred experience he had just lived.

Jacob's act of setting up the stone as a monument was not merely a physical gesture; it was an act of consecration, an acknowledgment of the sanctity of the place and the moment. He then took oil and poured it over the stone, anointing it. This act of pouring oil was symbolic, a ritual commonly used to consecrate and sanctify. In doing so, Jacob was declaring this place, and this stone, as set apart, holy, and connected to the divine encounter he had experienced.

This stone, once a mere part of the landscape, had now become a marker of a divine promise and presence. It stood as a testament to Jacob's encounter with God, the vision of the ladder, and the promises that had been reiterated to him. The anointed stone became a physical representation of the gateway between heaven and earth, a reminder of the place where Jacob had realized the omnipresence of the divine.

Jacob's actions that morning were driven by a newfound understanding of his place in the divine plan. The stone monument was not just a marker of a holy site; it was a symbol of Jacob's commitment to the path laid out for him, a path intertwined with the divine promise and guidance. As he continued his journey, this monument remained a powerful reminder of the moment when heaven had touched earth and God had reaffirmed His covenant with him.


In the wake of his divine encounter, Jacob felt compelled to give a new name to the place that had been the setting for his heavenly vision. He named it "Beth El," which means "House of God," recognizing it as the sacred space where he had encountered the divine presence and received God's promises.

The city, known originally as Luz, underwent a transformation in its identity through Jacob's renaming. This change was not merely nominal but represented a profound shift in the spiritual significance of the location. Luz, a name that denoted its previous secular identity, was now Beth El, a name that encapsulated its newfound status as a site of divine encounter and spiritual awakening.

This act of renaming by Jacob was an assertion of his faith and an acknowledgment of the profound impact of his dream. By calling it Beth El, Jacob was affirming that this place was more than just a geographic location; it was a bridge between heaven and earth, a tangible reminder of his covenant with God and the divine promise of protection and blessing.

The naming of Beth El thus marked a pivotal moment in the narrative, a turning point where the ordinary became extraordinary through divine encounter. It signified a place where the physical and spiritual realms intersected, a symbol of Jacob's ongoing journey under the guidance and promise of God. In renaming Luz as Beth El, Jacob left a lasting legacy, a sacred site that would be revered for generations as a place of divine presence and a testament to the covenant between God and his people.


In the wake of his profound encounter, Jacob, filled with awe and humility, made a vow. His words reflected both a deep faith and an understanding of his dependence on divine providence. "If God will be with me," he began, echoing the promise God had made to him in the dream, "and He will guard me on this way, upon which I am going."

Jacob's vow was a response to the promises God had made to him. He was not bargaining with God but expressing his commitment to trust in the divine promises. When he said, "If God will be with me," he was recalling God's assurance of "And behold, I am with you." And when he mentioned God guarding him, he was referring to God's promise of protection on his journey, "and I will guard you wherever you go."

Jacob's request for bread to eat and a garment to wear was more than a plea for physical sustenance and clothing. It was an acknowledgment of his total reliance on God for his basic needs. He understood that being forsaken by God meant more than just spiritual abandonment; it extended to the provision of one's daily needs. The assurance that he would not have to seek bread indicated that he would not be forsaken, as the psalmist says, "I have not seen a righteous man forsaken and his seed seeking bread."

Jacob's vow at Beth El was thus a declaration of his unwavering faith in God's promises and a commitment to rely on God's providence. It was a moment of spiritual affirmation, where Jacob acknowledged his role in the divine plan and his dependence on God's ongoing guidance and care. This vow solidified Jacob's relationship with God, rooted in trust, obedience, and a deep sense of divine presence in his life.


Jacob's vow concluded with a solemn promise regarding the stone he had set up as a monument. He declared, "Then this stone, which I have placed as a monument, shall be a house of God." The use of the word "then" (Hebrew: וְהָאֶבֶן), as Rashi explains, implies a conditional statement: If God fulfills the promises made to Jacob, then Jacob, in turn, will uphold his end of the vow.

This stone, once an ordinary part of the landscape and then a rest for his head, had already been transformed into a monument by Jacob. Now, he committed to further elevate its significance, envisioning it as a "house of God." This was not just a physical transformation but a declaration of the stone's ongoing spiritual significance. The Targum paraphrases Jacob's intent to use this stone as a place of worship before the Lord.

Jacob's commitment came to fruition when he returned from Padan-aram. Upon God's instruction to return to Beth-El, Jacob once again erected the stone as a monument and performed a libation, an act of pouring liquid as an offering, upon it, as recorded in the scriptures. This act was not only a fulfillment of his vow but also a reiteration of his ongoing commitment to God and recognition of the stone's role as a symbol of his covenant with God.

Furthermore, Jacob pledged, "and everything that You give me, I will surely tithe to You." This part of his vow showed his acknowledgment of God's role in providing for his needs and his commitment to honoring God with a portion of whatever he was given. This promise of tithing was a testament to Jacob's faith and gratitude, recognizing that all his blessings were from God and committing to give back a portion in acknowledgment of this divine providence.

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